Food Science, Nutrition and Technology Conferences

Epidemiological Link Between Faecal Carriage of SBSEC and African Spontaneously Fermented Dairy Products and Colorectal Adenocarcinoma in Kenya

Date & Time: From 2015-05-27
To 2015-05-29
Description of Conference

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) variant shows promising traits
for application as indigenous African dairy starter culture but, due to its
position within the opportunistic pathogenic Streptococcus bovis/ Streptococcus
equinus complex (SBSEC), its pathogenicity and epidemiology require
elucidation.
 The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SBSEC in
human volunteers, elucidate the association between traditional spontaneous
fermented dairy products (FDP) and the presence of SBSEC/Sii in persons with
or without colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRA).
Materials and Methods

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CAVS SPORTS REPORT

Date & Time: From 2015-04-27
To 2022-04-27
Description of Conference
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ENERGY_AGRO-FOOD CONFERENCE JUNE 2014

Date & Time: From 2014-06-18
To 2014-06-21
Description of Conference

About Energy-Agro-Food

The Energy-Agro-Food action is a bilateral collaboration between European and East-African Universities to design and develop an educational program that matches the current and expected professional requirements in the field of Energy and Agro-Food Systems.

 

 The Energy-Agro-Food action aim 

The overallaim of the action is to strengthen innovation and raise sustainability in the energy– agriculture sectors in East Africa through the improvement of human resources. Accordingly the specific objective of the action is to increase the capacity of local universities to supply innovative programmes on the two thematic fields of Energy and Agro-food at postgraduate and Lifelong Learning levels. Further, the action will merge in improving the academic staff scientific competences and networking capacities and training experts with higher standard qualification in the energy and agro-food sector

 

Consortium

The Energy-Agro-Food action is composed of consortium from:

Africa Universities

  • University of Nairobi (Kenya),
  • Sokoine University of Agriculture (Tanzania),
  • Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia),
  • Mekelle (Ethiopia),

European Universities

  • University of Bologna (Italy),
  • University D’Auvergne (France) and
  • University of Pavia (Italy)


 

 

Co-ordinating Institute

University of Bologna-Alma Master Studiorum

Department of Agro-Food Science and Technology

Viale Fanin 50, 40126 Bologna, Italy

 

Expected Outcome 

  1. Increased university awareness and capacity in interpreting local and regional needs of the agriculture-energy sectors.
  2. Reinforced universities’ capacity to design programs, teach and produce innovative knowledge of the local teaching staff.
  3. New teaching modules and materials jointly designed and incorporated in university programs in Master, PhD and lifelong learning level.
  4. New teaching modules implemented and tested at local and regional level with integration of internship experiences.

 

Activities

  1. 14-16 January, 2014: The Kick-off meeting was the first project meeting. It was organized in Bologna, country of the Project Coordination Unit.
  2. 4th March, 2014:A Local conference with project and external stakeholders was organised in Nairobi between University of Pavia (Italy) and the University of Nairobi.The objective was to share the results and gatherfurther feed backs on the state of the art on the local labour market and the expectations on the role of Universities. The conference was also an opportunity to collect ideas on possible cooperation between Universities and stakeholders and opportunities to take up internships and traineeship.
  3. 19-21 June 2014:Regional conference with project and external stakeholders with two main objectives: comparing national analysis to evaluate differences and similarities; receiving feed backs from regional actors with a broader vision of the evolution of the agro-food and energy labour market.
  4. November 2014:Training visits of senior African academic staff in Europe.
  5. Sept. 2015: A Summer school will be organized at the University of Nairobi in order to test the effectiveness of new modules and teaching materials and to offer a week of innovative training, with the possibility of co-teaching of African and European professors. Two academics from each partner University and five students from each African partner University will participate. Interactive sessions and working groups focusing on project works to facilitate student’s integration.
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Workshop on Nixtamalization of Maize

Date & Time: From 2013-11-18
To 2013-11-19
Description of Conference

Read more about the Workshop on Nixtamalization of Maize.

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ANAEMIA STATUS OF INFANTS 4-6 MONTHS OLD IN A RESOURCE-CONSTRAINED SETTING

Date & Time: From 2013-08-30
To 2013-10-01
Description of Conference
 
 
(Njenga J.N., Mwangi A.M., and Kogi-Makau W.) 
 
 
Abstract (submitted and accepted to: IUNS 20th International Congress of Nutrition to be held in Granada, Spain in September 2013).
 
Background:  It’s often assumed that healthy full-term infants are endowed with adequate iron stores and haemoglobin that provides recyclable iron. It’s speculated that many infants <6 months in less-developed countries are iron-deficient. Yet, WHO/UNICEF recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months while use of fortified complementary foods/vitamins-mineral supplements is only recommended after 6 months in breastfed children (PAHO/WHO, 2004). Iron supplementation in iron-deficient Honduran infants (4-6 months) showed an increase in haemoglobin (Domellof et al (2001). There is need to re-think the current supplementation programs targeting infants >6 months.
 
Objective: To determine anaemia status among infants aged 4-6 months prior to a supplementation study.
 
Methods: Setting:  Kenyan South Coast (INSTAPA Project). Haemoglobin (Hb) was measured in 219 infants (4.5-6 months old) using venipuncture blood samples (HemoCue Hb 301 System). Infants’ anaemia status was defined as Hb concentration ≤110g/L (race-adjusted). Anaemia status was further categorised as severe (Hb <70g/L), moderate (≥70 - <90g/L), and mild (90 - ≤110g/L), respectively.
 
Results: Mean age was 5.64 months (SD 0.211). 79% of infants (n=173) were anaemic. Overall, 82% (n=143) and 16% (n=29) had mild and moderate anaemia, respectively.
 
Discussion: WHO/UNICEF recommendation on exclusive breastfeeding assumes that iron stores are adequate for the first 6 months. These findings concur with Domellof et al (2001) that showed Honduran infants <6 months were iron-deficient.
 
Conclusion: With 1:4 infants being anaemic, the data strongly suggests a re-look at the iron status of children <6 months, so as to adjust existing guidelines on exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months. The high level of anaemia begs the question whether caregivers are receiving correct contextual advice.
 
 
E-mail contact: jnyathegi@yahoo.com 
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9th Triennial Conference - Transforming Potato and Sweet Potato Value Chains for Food and Nutrition Security

Date & Time: From 2013-06-30
To 2013-07-04
Description of Conference

 

African Potato Association (APA) Conference

Conference Venue: Great Rift Valley Lodge, Naivasha. Kenya.

 

Dr. George Abong' attended and presented 2 papers at the just concluded African Potato Association Conference at the Great Rift Valley Lodge, Naivasha. The conference was attended by participants from 23 countries in African and World over. It was one of the most successful events.

The two papers presented during this conference were:

  1. Potential of Processing Potato Flakes From Popular Kenyan Potato Varieties - View Abstract
  2. Diversity and Characteristics of Potato Flakes in Nairobi and Nakuru, Kenya - View Abstract
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Enhancing β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps using carrot powder as a flavoring agent.

Date & Time: From 2013-04-25
To 2013-04-26
Description of Conference

Authors: Abong’, G.O., Kabira, J.N. and Okoth, M.W. 

 

Abstract (Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple food crops in Kenya held on 25-26 April 2013 at Intercontinental hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.)

Potato crisps are popular snacks consumed worldwide. Manufacture of crisps in Kenya is dominated by small scale processors and there exist, depending on the market niche, a variety of flavors such as salted, tomato, chilli and cheese flavored . This study was designed to investigate the influence of carrot powder as a flavoring agent on β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps from three Kenyan potato varieties. Potato crisps from each variety were flavored by applying carrot powder at the rates of 0%, 2.5% and 5% of crisps weight. Total carotenoids varied in raw tubers from 115.38 to 190.67 µg/100g dry weight in Tigoni and Dutch Robjin, respectively. Total carotenoid content significantly (P<0.05) increased  on  addition of carrot powder to crisps reaching highest levels of 921.42, 1220.49 and 1269.01 µg/100g of dry weight, respectively. The levels of β-carotene were noticeably low in raw tubers and fried crisps, being undetected in Tigoni while it varied from Dutch Robjin (0.06, 0.21 µg/100g) to Cangi (0.11, 0.26 µg/100g). β-carotene and reduced ascorbic acid (RAA) significantly (P<0.05) increased with addition of carrot powder in all the varieties. Flavoring using carrot powder significantly (P<0.05) reduced sensory scores on flavor, color, oiliness and overall acceptability.  Crisps flavored at the rate of 0.25% were acceptable irrespective of the variety. On the other hand, all crisps flavored at 0.5% were unacceptable to panelists. Carrot powder can therefore be used as a flavoring agent to provide a natural source of vitamin A to consumers.

Key words: carrot powder, carotenoid, potato crisps, flavors, color.

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The current status of potato value chain in Kenya.

Date & Time: From 2013-04-25
To 2013-04-26
Description of Conference

Authors: Abong’, G.O. and Kabira, J.N. 

 

Abstract (Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple food crops in Kenya held on 25-26 April 2013 at Intercontinental hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.)

Potato plays a major economic role in the world and has been considered a major staple in developing countries such as Kenya where it ranks second to maize in terms of utilization. The importance of potato in Kenya is anchored on its role in alleviating poverty and fighting hunger as well as income generation thereby playing a dual role as food and cash crop. The crop is traded both in fresh and processed forms and the value chain is a source of sustainable livelihoods. Potatoes are grown by over 800,000 farmers on 160,000 ha and are valued at KE 46 billion per annum at the consumer level. Most of the varieties grown are locally adapted and are used for domestic consumption and processing.

The Kenyan potato value chain indirectly employs 2.5 million people including researchers, extension agents, seed inspectors, transporters, market agents, processors among others. They are, however faced with a number of challenges. Although the legal limit for ware potato bags is 110 kg, middle men use extended bags often over 150 kg to fleece the farmers. Due to lack of storage facilities, farmers often sell at low prices at harvest while consumers pay high prices 2-3 months later due to low supply of potatoes before the next harvest. Potato is now being considered by the Ministry of Agriculture as a possible alternative crop to maize which is having problems with incurable diseases from unknown sources.  Many farmers in maize growing areas are now adopting potatoes for food and income security reasons. Majority of the households in potato growing zones and a number of urban dwellers use the tubers as important accompaniment to diverse dishes. On the other hand, potato crisps and French fries (chips) are important processed products that form greater parts of menus in restaurants and hotels in major urban centers with crisps assuming large share in the supermarkets, kiosks and roadside shops. There exist a great potential in the potato value chain as much as there are challenges and opportunities. This paper is a step-by-step diagnosis of the potato value chain in Kenya, from production, post-harvest handling, processing and marketing including challenges and opportunities.

 

Key words: Staple food, dual crop, value chain, value addition

 

 

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The potential of nixtamalization of maize to improve safety of consumption, nutritional value and processing property.

Date & Time: From 2013-04-25
To 2013-04-26
Description of Conference
 
Trends and Opportunities in the Production, processing
and Consumption of Staple Food Crops in Kenya.

Conference Venue: Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya

Conference Sponsors: KIRDI and Max Rubner Institute (MRI) of Germany

Author: Prof. Jasper K. Imungi

Abstract:

The potential of nixtamalization of maize to improve safety of consumption, nutritional value and processing property. Abstraction of the presentation: Nixtamalization or alkali cooking of maize helps to reduce the levels of aflatoxin and especially if the cooking is coupled with decortication. This has the function of reducing aflatoxin exposure in individuals who subsist mainly on maize and maize products like the Kenyans. Nixtamalization also helps to release niacin from the bound form in maize - niacinogen -, also alters the property of proteins and starch so that they are more digestible, and finally releases minerals that are bound to sequestering agents such as phytates.  The protein functionality is also transformed so that it acquires some properties similar to those of the wheat gluten in the formation of dough. Use of maize in the manufacture of gluten free breads, both oven and unleavened, will diversify the forms in which maize is utilized.

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Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple food crops in Kenya

Date & Time: From 2013-04-25
To 2013-04-26
Description of Conference

Enhancing β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps using carrot powder as a flavoring agent

Authors: Abong’, G.O., Kabira, J.N. and Okoth, M.W.

Abstract

Potato crisps are popular snacks consumed worldwide. Manufacture of crisps in Kenya is dominated by small scale processors and there exist, depending on the market niche, a variety of flavors such as salted, tomato, chilli and cheese flavored . This study was designed to investigate the influence of carrot powder as a flavoring agent on β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps from three Kenyan potato varieties. Potato crisps from each variety were flavored by applying carrot powder at the rates of 0%, 2.5% and 5% of crisps weight. Total carotenoids varied in raw tubers from 115.38 to 190.67 µg/100g dry weight in Tigoni and Dutch Robjin, respectively. Total carotenoid content significantly (P<0.05) increased  on  addition of carrot powder to crisps reaching highest levels of 921.42, 1220.49 and 1269.01 µg/100g of dry weight, respectively. The levels of β-carotene were noticeably low in raw tubers and fried crisps, being undetected in Tigoni while it varied from Dutch Robjin (0.06, 0.21 µg/100g) to Cangi (0.11, 0.26 µg/100g). β-carotene and reduced ascorbic acid (RAA) significantly (P<0.05) increased with addition of carrot powder in all the varieties. Flavoring using carrot powder significantly (P<0.05) reduced sensory scores on flavor, color, oiliness and overall acceptability.  Crisps flavored at the rate of 0.25% were acceptable irrespective of the variety. On the other hand, all crisps flavored at 0.5% were unacceptable to panelists. Carrot powder can therefore be used as a flavoring agent to provide a natural source of vitamin A to consumers.

Key words: carrot powder, carotenoid, potato crisps, flavors, color.

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Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple food crops in Kenya

Date & Time: From 2013-04-25
To 2013-04-26
Description of Conference

The current status of potato value chain in Kenya

Authors: Abong’, G.O. and Kabira, J.N.

Abstract

Potato plays a major economic role in the world and has been considered a major staple in developing countries such as Kenya where it ranks second to maize in terms of utilization. The importance of potato in Kenya is anchored on its role in alleviating poverty and fighting hunger as well as income generation thereby playing a dual role as food and cash crop. The crop is traded both in fresh and processed forms and the value chain is a source of sustainable livelihoods. Potatoes are grown by over 800,000 farmers on 160,000 ha and are valued at KE 46 billion per annum at the consumer level. Most of the varieties grown are locally adapted and are used for domestic consumption and processing.

The Kenyan potato value chain indirectly employs 2.5 million people including researchers, extension agents, seed inspectors, transporters, market agents, processors among others. They are, however faced with a number of challenges. Although the legal limit for ware potato bags is 110 kg, middle men use extended bags often over 150 kg to fleece the farmers. Due to lack of storage facilities, farmers often sell at low prices at harvest while consumers pay high prices 2-3 months later due to low supply of potatoes before the next harvest. Potato is now being considered by the Ministry of Agriculture as a possible alternative crop to maize which is having problems with incurable diseases from unknown sources.  Many farmers in maize growing areas are now adopting potatoes for food and income security reasons. Majority of the households in potato growing zones and a number of urban dwellers use the tubers as important accompaniment to diverse dishes. On the other hand, potato crisps and French fries (chips) are important processed products that form greater parts of menus in restaurants and hotels in major urban centers with crisps assuming large share in the supermarkets, kiosks and roadside shops. There exist a great potential in the potato value chain as much as there are challenges and opportunities. This paper is a step-by-step diagnosis of the potato value chain in Kenya, from production, post-harvest handling, processing and marketing including challenges and opportunities.

 

Key words: Staple food, dual crop, value chain, value addition

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The potential for nixtamalization of maize in Kenya.

Date & Time: From 2012-10-16
To 2012-10-20
Description of Conference

 

4th International Maize Nixtamalization Congress

Conference venue: Queretaro City Mexico

Author: Prof. Jasper K. Imungi

Abstract:

Kenyans are perennially afflicted by aflatoxicoses and chronic aflatoxin exposure. Nixtamalization of maize and maize products has the potential to reduce the levels of aflatoxin in maize in the decorticated maize through physical removal and in whole maize products through chemical degradation. Nixtamalization also has the potential to increase nutrition of maize through releasure of niacin from niacinogen and improve digestibility of protein and starch, as well as the absorption of maize. Alkali cooked maize products should not be a problem in the country, because some communities are already engaged in the practice of cooking the products using the method. Finally the introduction of nixtamalized maize products such as tortillas will help to diversify utilization of maize.

 

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Feeding practices as a predictor of micronutrient adequacy among 6-18 month olds in Kikoneni Location, South Coast (Kenya)

Date & Time: From 2012-09-30
To 2012-10-04
Description of Conference

Nutrition Congress Africa 2012 (University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa )

Authors: 1Jane Njenga, 2Rashida Abubakkar, 1Alice Mwangi, 3Jane Kvalsvig, 2Inge Brower
1-University of Nairobi; 2-Wageningen University; 3-University of Kwa Zulu Natal
 
Poster Presentation:
Feeding practices as a predictor of micronutrient adequacy among 6-18 month olds in Kikoneni Location, South Coast (Kenya)
 

 

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Towards small and medium entrepreneurs micronutrient capacity development in knowledge and product formulation in Kenya

Date & Time: From 2012-09-30
To 2012-10-04
Description of Conference

Nutrition Congress Africa 2012

Authors: Wambui Kogi‐Makau, Dasel W. M. Kaindi, Alice M. Mwangi, Sophie Ngala, Angela A. Andago, Gloria Mbera and Martin Mwangi

Venue: University of the Free State 
Location: Bloemfontein, South Africa 
Host: Jointly hosted by the Nutrition Society of South Africa (NSSA), Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA) and the African Nutrition Society (ANS).
Theme: Transforming the Nutrition Landscape in Africa
The Nutrition Congress Africa 2012 was a joint scientific meeting of the 24th congress of the Nutrition Society of South Africa, the 12th congress of the Association for Dietetics in South Africa and the 5th African Nutrition Epidemiology Conference hosted jointly by the Nutrition Society of South Africa (NSSA), Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA) and the African Nutrition Society (ANS). 

Supported by: INSTAPA project

 

 

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Levels of Acrylamide in Commercial Potato Crisps Sold in Nairobi, Kenya.

Date & Time: From 2012-09-26
To 2012-09-28
Description of Conference
 
Authors: Jackline A. Ogolla, George O. Abong’, Michael W. Okoth, Jasper K. Imungi, Jackson N. Kabira and Paul N. Karanja. (2012). 
 
Abstract (The seventh Egerton University International Conference: Research and Expo held on 26-28 September 2012 at Egerton University.)
 
Acrylamide has been found to be genotoxic and a neurotoxicant and its classification as a suspected human carcinogen calls for a concerted effort to minimize its presence in human diet. It is mainly formed in fried and baked carbohydrate rich foodstuffs such as potato chips and crisps through maillard reaction at elevated temperatures. This study was designed to determine the levels of acrylamide in commercial potato crisps that are sold in Nairobi, Kenya. Different brands of   potato crisps were purchased from retail outlets while unbranded (street) samples were purchased from kiosks in   five districts of the Nairobi County. The samples purchased were a total of 35 branded samples and fifteen unbranded samples. The parameters analysed were moisture, colour and acrylamide content. The moisture content of the crisps ranged from 0.39% to 7.97%. There was a significant (P≤0.05) difference among the crisps samples in color parameters. Out of the forty three products, most of the samples were light colored with lightness (L*) parameters greater than 50 apart from only two samples. Most samples tended towards green as shown by the negative values of redness parameter (a*) indicating that there was less or no excess browning of the products during frying. All the samples tended towards yellow as indicated by positive values of yellowness parameter (b*). 
Acrylamide levels significantly (P≤0.05) differed between the traded crisps brands ranging from non-detectable levels to 8666 μg kg−1 in the branded samples while in the unbranded samples it ranged from 5666 μg kg−1 in Kiosk 7 to 9499 μg kg−1 in Kiosk 6. There was a significant differences (P<0.05) in acrylamide levels between the branded and the unbranded (street) potatocrisps. Most of the flavoured brands were non-detectable. It therefore indicates that depending on the brand of crisps and amounts consumed by an individual, levels of acrylamide intake and exposure in Nairobi will differ greatly. 
 
Key words: Acrylamide, potato crisps, carcinogen, processing.
 
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The seventh Egerton University International Conference: Research and Expo

Date & Time: From 2012-09-26
To 2012-09-28
Description of Conference

Levels of acrylamide in commercial potato crisps sold in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: Jackline A. Ogolla, George O. Abong’, Michael W. Okoth, Jasper K. Imungi, Jackson N. Kabira and Paul N. Karanja

Abstract:

Acrylamide has been found to be genotoxic and a neurotoxicant and its classification as a suspected human carcinogen calls for a concerted effort to minimize its presence in human diet. It is mainly formed in fried and baked carbohydrate rich foodstuffs such as potato chips and crisps through maillard reaction at elevated temperatures. This study was designed to determine the levels of acrylamide in commercial potato crisps that are sold in Nairobi, Kenya. Different brands of   potato crisps were purchased from retail outlets while unbranded (street) samples were purchased from kiosks in   five districts of the Nairobi County. The samples purchased were a total of 35 branded samples and fifteen unbranded samples. The parameters analysed were moisture, colour and acrylamide content. The moisture content of the crisps ranged from 0.39% to 7.97%. There was a significant (P≤0.05) difference among the crisps samples in color parameters. Out of the forty three products, most of the samples were light colored with lightness (L*) parameters greater than 50 apart from only two samples. Most samples tended towards green as shown by the negative values of redness parameter (a*) indicating that there was less or no excess browning of the products during frying. All the samples tended towards yellow as indicated by positive values of yellowness parameter (b*).

Acrylamide levels significantly (P≤0.05) differed between the traded crisps brands ranging from non-detectable levels to 8666 μg kg−1 in the branded samples while in the unbranded samples it ranged from 5666 μg kg−1 in Kiosk 7 to 9499 μg kg−1 in Kiosk 6. There was a significant differences (P<0.05) in acrylamide levels between the branded and the unbranded (street) potatocrisps. Most of the flavoured brands were non-detectable. It therefore indicates that depending on the brand of crisps and amounts consumed by an individual, levels of acrylamide intake and exposure in Nairobi will differ greatly.

Key words: Acrylamide, potato crisps, carcinogen, processing.

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Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) Practices In Kikoneni Location: A Resource-Constrained Rural Coastal Setting

Date & Time: From 2012-04-01
To 2012-04-01
Description of Conference

The 4th INSTAPA Annual Consortium Meeting in Durban, South Africa, April 2012

Author: Jane N. Njenga

Oral Presentation: 
Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) Practices In Kikoneni Location: A Resource-Constrained Rural Coastal Setting. 
 
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Anaemia and nutritional status of children 5-7.5 months in Kikoneni Location; Msambweni District – Kenya.

Date & Time: From 2011-05-01
To 2013-07-01
Description of Conference
 
The 3rd INSTAPA Annual Conference, Cotonou, Benin May 2011 
 
Poster Presentations:
Anaemia and nutritional status of children 5-7.5 months in Kikoneni Location; Msambweni District – Kenya. 

 

Authors:

Njenga J. N1,  Zimmermann M.B.2, Mwangi A.M,1 Brouwer I.3 , Jaeggi T2, Kvalsvig J4
1 Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, University of Nairobi
2 ETH, Zurich, Switzerland 
3 Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Netherlands 
4 University of Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa
 

 

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Descriptive Compliance Assessment In A Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Study (Kikoneni Location, Msambweni District – Coastal Kenya)

Date & Time: From 2011-05-01
To 2012-05-01
Description of Conference

 

The 3rd INSTAPA Annual Conference, Cotonou, Benin May 2011

Poster Presentations:

Descriptive Compliance Assessment In A Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Study (Kikoneni Location, Msambweni District – Coastal Kenya) 

Authors:

Njenga J. N1,  Mkangu, M3, Mwangi A.M,1 Kvalsvig J4
1 Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, University of Nairobi. P. O. Box 29053 – 00625 Nairobi, Kenya,  
3 Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Coast Province, 
4 University of Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa
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